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HOW TO USE “I.E.” AND “E.G.” CORRECTLY

October 9, 2014 Leave a comment

It sometimes hard (and also confusing) to decide whether to use i.e. or e.g. in writing, because they seems to be the same. But, through this article, I will reveal the “secret” about how to use i.e. and e.g. correctly and effectively. Most of the “original” sentences/theories can be found here: here and here.

What to know about i.e. and e.g.

  • e.is the abbreviation of the Latin phrase “id est” meaning “that is” while  e.g. is the abbreviation of the Latin phrase “exempli gratia” meaning “for example”.
  • Use e. when you want to give further explanation for something.
    Example: After work I’ll walk over to the Thunderdome, i.e., the new sports arena a few blocks away.
  • Use g. when you want to give a few examples but not a complete list.
    Example: I love drinking holiday-related beverages, e.g., hot chocolate, apple cider, pumpkin spice lattes.

How to Remember the Difference Between I.e. and E.g.

But by now, I’m sure you know that I’m not going to ask you to remember Latin. I’m going to give you a memory trick. So here’s how I remember the difference. Forget about i.e. standing for “that is” or whatever it really means in Latin. From now on, i.e., which starts with i, means “in other words,” and e.g., which starts with e, means “for example.” I = in other words. E= example.

A few listeners have also written in to say that they remember the difference between i.e. and e.g. by imagining that i.e. means “in essence,” and e.g. sounds like “egg sample,” and those are good memory tricks too.

So now that you have a few tricks for remembering what the abbreviations mean, let’s think about how to use them in a sentence.

E.g. means “for example,” so you use it to introduce an example: I like card games, e.g., bridge and crazy eights. Because I used e.g., you know that I have provided a list of examples of card games that I like. It’s not a finite list of all card games I like; it’s just a few examples.

On the other hand, i.e. means “in other words,” so you use it to introduce a further clarification: I like to play cards, i.e., bridge and crazy eights. Because I used i.e., which introduces a clarification, you know that these are the only card games that I enjoy.

Here are two more examples:

Squiggly loves watching old cartoons (e.g., DuckTales and Tugboat Mickey). The words following e.g. are examples, so you know that these are just some of the old cartoons that Squiggly enjoys.

Squiggly loves watching Donald Duck’s nephews (i.e., Huey, Dewey, and Louie). The words following i.e. provide clarification: they tell you the names of Donald Duck’s three nephews.

An important point is that if I’ve failed, and you’re still confused about when to use each abbreviation, you can always just write out the words “for example” or “in other words.” There’s no rule that says you have to use the abbreviations.

Dos and Don’ts

Don’t italicize i.e. and e.g.; even though they are abbreviations for Latin words, they’ve been used for so long that they’re considered a standard part of the English language. Also, remember that they are abbreviations, so there is always a period after each letter.

Also, I always put a comma after i.e. and e.g. I’ve noticed that my spell checker always freaks out and wants me to remove the comma, but five out of six style guides recommend the comma. Seriously. I got so engrossed in the question of whether a comma is required after i.e. and e.g. that I made a  table for the website summarizing the opinions of six different style guides.

EXPRESSION OF CONFIRMATION (QUESTION TAG)

September 5, 2012 Leave a comment

After posting numerous general articles related to translation and site review, today I post one article related to language focus. That is Question Tag. Question tag is used to confirm the sentence. The form of sentence which has question tag will be like these:
1. If statement is positive, the question tag is negative
2. If the statement is negative, the question tag is positive

Question tag works based on the verbs, to be, and auxiliaries that used. You will use different question tag on each sentence, depends on those 3 things, sentence structure, and the tense that you use. See the examples below and pay attention to the bold-printed words:
Question tag based on the verbs:
1. You play football, don’t you?
2. He comes too late, doesn’t he?
3. The girls borrow your books, don’t they?
4. She doesn’t like dog, does she?
5. Sarah finished the paper yesterday, didn’t she?
6. Farhan flew to Sydney last month, didn’t he?
Here you see that the verb is paired with do / does / don’t / doesn’t / did / didn’t. Once more, you just need to have a look at the statement. If you have a positive statement, then you should use the negative form of question tag (… play …., don’t …?). On the contrary, if you have a negative statement, you should use the positive form of question tag. Don’t forget to pay attention to the subject, because you need to change it into suitable/appropriate pronoun in the question tag.

Question tag based on the “to be”:
1. Sarah is smart, isn’t she?
2. The students are facing hard exam, aren’t they?
3. You were not there last night, were you?
4. He was with you, wasn’t he?
5. I am early this afternoon, aren’t I? [In this part, “I am” is changed into “aren’t I”. But sometimes people say “am I not” instead of saying “aren’t I”]
6. I am not a teacher, am I? [In this part, “I am not” just turns into “am I”]

Question tag based on the auxiliaries:
For the statements that use auxiliary you will need to pay special attention, because sometimes they are confusing. Sometimes they appear like a verb, so you must be careful to decide whether they are real auxiliary or completely a verb. Look at the samples below:
1. You have just visited your grandfather, haven’t you?
2. She has started the job, hasn’t she?
Then compare them with these one:
1. You have dozens of novel, don’t you?
2. She has a rose garden in the backyard, doesn’t she?

Besides using question tag, expression of confirmation can be also using “… right?” to confirm the statement. This form needs no specific rule and it’s the easiest form of confirmation. But please notice that this form is only used in non-formal daily conversation. Examples:
1. You came here at seven, right?
2. He doesn’t like badminton, right?
3. I didn’t do any mistake, right?

 

 

 

A FUN WAY TO INTERACT WITH COMPUTER

March 26, 2011 3 comments

It’s been quite long time, I have no articles posted here. The main reason was my recent business that always consumes my time, so I couldn’t post any article here. Luckily, before I got so busy, I have prepared some articles so today when I have spare-time, I could post one more interesting article (I thought hehe…). Enjoy it!

Windows Speech Recognition

Windows Speech Recognition

Computer is very useful for our daily life and everyone knows it. But maybe not all people pay special attention to a very innovative and potential function in it: speech recognition. If you are running Windows 7, you will find a function named “Windows Speech Recognition”. It gives us chance to interact with the computer such as giving command to run / open a program, even writing and sending e-mail for us.

The basic concept of “Windows Speech Recognition” is making a real interaction between the computer and the user. User (we) can open a program or asking computer to do something for us.

The fun side of using this feature is that we can work with our computer while learning English, especially learning to practice “perfect” English. By using speech recognition function, we will learn how to use English correctly. Because the computer will only understands English with a perfect pronunciation. It is not a matter even we must speak clearly and correctly but we can’t. It just a fun way to practice and examine our English.

If we have a problem with Windows Speech Recognition, the computer will give some options about what should the computer do when it doesn’t understand what we say. For example, when we command the computer to type a sentence and it doesn’t spell the sentence correctly, Windows will give many option. When we say “clear” unclearly, the computer may hear and write “clean”. The only thing we should do is saying “undo” or “correct clean”. It’s a simple, Windows will show us many options such as: (1) layer, (2) player, (3) where, (4) clear. We need to choose “four” to correct the wrong word. The better we speak, the faster computer do something for us. Faster than writing or commanding with mouse pointer and or keyboard.

The ability of computer in listening and understanding our command is not only caused by our fluency and proficiency in English, but also complete configuration. When we do a complete configuration (following the step-by-step in configuring), the computer will become more sensitive to our voice.

To access “Windows Speech Recognition” function, you can do this: click on START menu. Choose ALL PROGRAMS, then ACCESSORIES. Choose EASE OF ACCESS, then WINDOWS SPEECH RECOGNITION. With its slogan, “Dictate text and control your computer by voice”, this feature is really fun and useful. Try it!

BY WRITING, WHAT DO YOU WANT TO BE?

February 24, 2011 2 comments

writing clip artBeing a writer is a “brave” and “elitist” choice. Because a choice to be writer means that we will work out of prevalence (kelaziman). By writing, we will always in a process to be smarter, more sensitive to the environment, and so on. So that why, writing is recognized as an activity that can engage all brain components and make our brain cells stay active (it prevent us from being senile). Because, when we want to write something, we also count, feel, read, discuss and make association, listen or observe something, and rebuild information. What a complete activity, isn’t it?

But, have you ever imagined about “what is your real purpose” in writing if writing is your hobby? Or, did you decide about your main reason in the first time you write something? Is that to be a famous writer with a lot masterpieces and money? Or, maybe you have a “special mission” in deciding to be a writer? Read more…

ENGLISH APPLICATION LETTER

January 30, 2011 2 comments

For about 3 weeks ago, my friend asked me the sample of application letter. Then, I became inspired to write an example here. As we know, application letter is a kind of “surat penjualan” which through this, we try to “sell” our knowledge, our experiences, our skills, our services, and our personality. Here are the examples (hope it will be useful for you):

#1 (application letter based on an advertisement)

142, Jalan Kalimantan

Bandung

21th January, 2011

Box 5555

The Indonesian Observer

Jakarta

 

Dear Sir,

With reference to your advertisement for an efficient secretary, I wish to apply this job.

After graduated from secretary academy, I began to work as a secretary in a firm of exporter for whom I worked for two years. Unfortunately they have to stop their activities and I have, therefore, to look for a new job.

I am very good in shorthand and typewriting. For the last six months I worked part-time in an Account Office and have a fair knowledge of book-keeping.

I shall be 25 years of age by the end of this month.

 

Yours faithfully,

 

 

Sinta Miranti

 

#2 (application letter based on information from someone)

142, Jalan Kalimantan

Bandung

21th January, 2011

Box 5555

The Indonesian Observer

Jakarta

 

Dear Sir,

One of the public relation staff, Mr. Tarigan, has told me that you have inquired whether he can recommend one of the students for the post of assistant secretary in your firm. As I shall be leaving the course at the end of this month, he has suggested that I should apply for this position.

I have just completed a 6 months course and enclosed the certificate which I obtained. As you will see I have a speed of 120 words in shorthand and 60 in typing. I know, the principle of accountancy and I am familiar with all types of business correspondence.

In addition I attended the classes in German and French and have a good knowledge of both. I am sure you will not regret to take me as an assistant secretary in your firm because the course I have been joining provides the best preparation for a business career.

I am 21 years of age and live with my parents in this city. I was educated at Senior State High School which I left with the high school certificate.

I should be grateful if you would give me an opportunity for interview.

 

Yours faithfully,

 

 

Sinta Miranti

 

#3 (application letter that we create based on ourselves’ initiative)

142, Jalan Kalimantan

Bandung

21th January, 2011

Box 5555

The Indonesian Observer

Jakarta

 

Dear Sir,

I am talking courage to write to you to inquire whether there is a vacancy in your firm which I might usefully fill.

I have studied management at the faculty of economics which I left in August with a first class honor degree. Last year our faculty arranged a visit to your factory and we were shown over the various departments of it and I was really surprised and decided to work with you if you could hire me.

I fully realize that it is unusual to apply for a position in this way but it is just possible that in a big concern like yours there might be a job where my qualifications could be useful.

If my application interested you, I should be happy to work for a trial period of 3 moths at a nominal salary. I am 23 years of age and an Indonesian nationality.

I hope you will give me the chance of an interview and I want to assure you that I would do my very best.

 

Yours faithfully,

 

 

Sinta Miranti