Posts Tagged ‘English Text’


October 9, 2014 Leave a comment

It sometimes hard (and also confusing) to decide whether to use i.e. or e.g. in writing, because they seems to be the same. But, through this article, I will reveal the “secret” about how to use i.e. and e.g. correctly and effectively. Most of the “original” sentences/theories can be found here: here and here.

What to know about i.e. and e.g.

  • the abbreviation of the Latin phrase “id est” meaning “that is” while  e.g. is the abbreviation of the Latin phrase “exempli gratia” meaning “for example”.
  • Use e. when you want to give further explanation for something.
    Example: After work I’ll walk over to the Thunderdome, i.e., the new sports arena a few blocks away.
  • Use g. when you want to give a few examples but not a complete list.
    Example: I love drinking holiday-related beverages, e.g., hot chocolate, apple cider, pumpkin spice lattes.

How to Remember the Difference Between I.e. and E.g.

But by now, I’m sure you know that I’m not going to ask you to remember Latin. I’m going to give you a memory trick. So here’s how I remember the difference. Forget about i.e. standing for “that is” or whatever it really means in Latin. From now on, i.e., which starts with i, means “in other words,” and e.g., which starts with e, means “for example.” I = in other words. E= example.

A few listeners have also written in to say that they remember the difference between i.e. and e.g. by imagining that i.e. means “in essence,” and e.g. sounds like “egg sample,” and those are good memory tricks too.

So now that you have a few tricks for remembering what the abbreviations mean, let’s think about how to use them in a sentence.

E.g. means “for example,” so you use it to introduce an example: I like card games, e.g., bridge and crazy eights. Because I used e.g., you know that I have provided a list of examples of card games that I like. It’s not a finite list of all card games I like; it’s just a few examples.

On the other hand, i.e. means “in other words,” so you use it to introduce a further clarification: I like to play cards, i.e., bridge and crazy eights. Because I used i.e., which introduces a clarification, you know that these are the only card games that I enjoy.

Here are two more examples:

Squiggly loves watching old cartoons (e.g., DuckTales and Tugboat Mickey). The words following e.g. are examples, so you know that these are just some of the old cartoons that Squiggly enjoys.

Squiggly loves watching Donald Duck’s nephews (i.e., Huey, Dewey, and Louie). The words following i.e. provide clarification: they tell you the names of Donald Duck’s three nephews.

An important point is that if I’ve failed, and you’re still confused about when to use each abbreviation, you can always just write out the words “for example” or “in other words.” There’s no rule that says you have to use the abbreviations.

Dos and Don’ts

Don’t italicize i.e. and e.g.; even though they are abbreviations for Latin words, they’ve been used for so long that they’re considered a standard part of the English language. Also, remember that they are abbreviations, so there is always a period after each letter.

Also, I always put a comma after i.e. and e.g. I’ve noticed that my spell checker always freaks out and wants me to remove the comma, but five out of six style guides recommend the comma. Seriously. I got so engrossed in the question of whether a comma is required after i.e. and e.g. that I made a  table for the website summarizing the opinions of six different style guides.


September 5, 2012 Leave a comment

After posting numerous general articles related to translation and site review, today I post one article related to language focus. That is Question Tag. Question tag is used to confirm the sentence. The form of sentence which has question tag will be like these:
1. If statement is positive, the question tag is negative
2. If the statement is negative, the question tag is positive

Question tag works based on the verbs, to be, and auxiliaries that used. You will use different question tag on each sentence, depends on those 3 things, sentence structure, and the tense that you use. See the examples below and pay attention to the bold-printed words:
Question tag based on the verbs:
1. You play football, don’t you?
2. He comes too late, doesn’t he?
3. The girls borrow your books, don’t they?
4. She doesn’t like dog, does she?
5. Sarah finished the paper yesterday, didn’t she?
6. Farhan flew to Sydney last month, didn’t he?
Here you see that the verb is paired with do / does / don’t / doesn’t / did / didn’t. Once more, you just need to have a look at the statement. If you have a positive statement, then you should use the negative form of question tag (… play …., don’t …?). On the contrary, if you have a negative statement, you should use the positive form of question tag. Don’t forget to pay attention to the subject, because you need to change it into suitable/appropriate pronoun in the question tag.

Question tag based on the “to be”:
1. Sarah is smart, isn’t she?
2. The students are facing hard exam, aren’t they?
3. You were not there last night, were you?
4. He was with you, wasn’t he?
5. I am early this afternoon, aren’t I? [In this part, “I am” is changed into “aren’t I”. But sometimes people say “am I not” instead of saying “aren’t I”]
6. I am not a teacher, am I? [In this part, “I am not” just turns into “am I”]

Question tag based on the auxiliaries:
For the statements that use auxiliary you will need to pay special attention, because sometimes they are confusing. Sometimes they appear like a verb, so you must be careful to decide whether they are real auxiliary or completely a verb. Look at the samples below:
1. You have just visited your grandfather, haven’t you?
2. She has started the job, hasn’t she?
Then compare them with these one:
1. You have dozens of novel, don’t you?
2. She has a rose garden in the backyard, doesn’t she?

Besides using question tag, expression of confirmation can be also using “… right?” to confirm the statement. This form needs no specific rule and it’s the easiest form of confirmation. But please notice that this form is only used in non-formal daily conversation. Examples:
1. You came here at seven, right?
2. He doesn’t like badminton, right?
3. I didn’t do any mistake, right?





March 26, 2011 3 comments

It’s been quite long time, I have no articles posted here. The main reason was my recent business that always consumes my time, so I couldn’t post any article here. Luckily, before I got so busy, I have prepared some articles so today when I have spare-time, I could post one more interesting article (I thought hehe…). Enjoy it!

Windows Speech Recognition

Windows Speech Recognition

Computer is very useful for our daily life and everyone knows it. But maybe not all people pay special attention to a very innovative and potential function in it: speech recognition. If you are running Windows 7, you will find a function named “Windows Speech Recognition”. It gives us chance to interact with the computer such as giving command to run / open a program, even writing and sending e-mail for us.

The basic concept of “Windows Speech Recognition” is making a real interaction between the computer and the user. User (we) can open a program or asking computer to do something for us.

The fun side of using this feature is that we can work with our computer while learning English, especially learning to practice “perfect” English. By using speech recognition function, we will learn how to use English correctly. Because the computer will only understands English with a perfect pronunciation. It is not a matter even we must speak clearly and correctly but we can’t. It just a fun way to practice and examine our English.

If we have a problem with Windows Speech Recognition, the computer will give some options about what should the computer do when it doesn’t understand what we say. For example, when we command the computer to type a sentence and it doesn’t spell the sentence correctly, Windows will give many option. When we say “clear” unclearly, the computer may hear and write “clean”. The only thing we should do is saying “undo” or “correct clean”. It’s a simple, Windows will show us many options such as: (1) layer, (2) player, (3) where, (4) clear. We need to choose “four” to correct the wrong word. The better we speak, the faster computer do something for us. Faster than writing or commanding with mouse pointer and or keyboard.

The ability of computer in listening and understanding our command is not only caused by our fluency and proficiency in English, but also complete configuration. When we do a complete configuration (following the step-by-step in configuring), the computer will become more sensitive to our voice.

To access “Windows Speech Recognition” function, you can do this: click on START menu. Choose ALL PROGRAMS, then ACCESSORIES. Choose EASE OF ACCESS, then WINDOWS SPEECH RECOGNITION. With its slogan, “Dictate text and control your computer by voice”, this feature is really fun and useful. Try it!


February 24, 2011 2 comments

writing clip artBeing a writer is a “brave” and “elitist” choice. Because a choice to be writer means that we will work out of prevalence (kelaziman). By writing, we will always in a process to be smarter, more sensitive to the environment, and so on. So that why, writing is recognized as an activity that can engage all brain components and make our brain cells stay active (it prevent us from being senile). Because, when we want to write something, we also count, feel, read, discuss and make association, listen or observe something, and rebuild information. What a complete activity, isn’t it?

But, have you ever imagined about “what is your real purpose” in writing if writing is your hobby? Or, did you decide about your main reason in the first time you write something? Is that to be a famous writer with a lot masterpieces and money? Or, maybe you have a “special mission” in deciding to be a writer? Read more…


January 30, 2011 2 comments

For about 3 weeks ago, my friend asked me the sample of application letter. Then, I became inspired to write an example here. As we know, application letter is a kind of “surat penjualan” which through this, we try to “sell” our knowledge, our experiences, our skills, our services, and our personality. Here are the examples (hope it will be useful for you):

#1 (application letter based on an advertisement)

142, Jalan Kalimantan


21th January, 2011

Box 5555

The Indonesian Observer



Dear Sir,

With reference to your advertisement for an efficient secretary, I wish to apply this job.

After graduated from secretary academy, I began to work as a secretary in a firm of exporter for whom I worked for two years. Unfortunately they have to stop their activities and I have, therefore, to look for a new job.

I am very good in shorthand and typewriting. For the last six months I worked part-time in an Account Office and have a fair knowledge of book-keeping.

I shall be 25 years of age by the end of this month.


Yours faithfully,



Sinta Miranti


#2 (application letter based on information from someone)

142, Jalan Kalimantan


21th January, 2011

Box 5555

The Indonesian Observer



Dear Sir,

One of the public relation staff, Mr. Tarigan, has told me that you have inquired whether he can recommend one of the students for the post of assistant secretary in your firm. As I shall be leaving the course at the end of this month, he has suggested that I should apply for this position.

I have just completed a 6 months course and enclosed the certificate which I obtained. As you will see I have a speed of 120 words in shorthand and 60 in typing. I know, the principle of accountancy and I am familiar with all types of business correspondence.

In addition I attended the classes in German and French and have a good knowledge of both. I am sure you will not regret to take me as an assistant secretary in your firm because the course I have been joining provides the best preparation for a business career.

I am 21 years of age and live with my parents in this city. I was educated at Senior State High School which I left with the high school certificate.

I should be grateful if you would give me an opportunity for interview.


Yours faithfully,



Sinta Miranti


#3 (application letter that we create based on ourselves’ initiative)

142, Jalan Kalimantan


21th January, 2011

Box 5555

The Indonesian Observer



Dear Sir,

I am talking courage to write to you to inquire whether there is a vacancy in your firm which I might usefully fill.

I have studied management at the faculty of economics which I left in August with a first class honor degree. Last year our faculty arranged a visit to your factory and we were shown over the various departments of it and I was really surprised and decided to work with you if you could hire me.

I fully realize that it is unusual to apply for a position in this way but it is just possible that in a big concern like yours there might be a job where my qualifications could be useful.

If my application interested you, I should be happy to work for a trial period of 3 moths at a nominal salary. I am 23 years of age and an Indonesian nationality.

I hope you will give me the chance of an interview and I want to assure you that I would do my very best.


Yours faithfully,



Sinta Miranti


December 9, 2010 1 comment

Explanation text in some way is similar to procedure text. Explanation passage often makes description about how something happens or why the thing occurs. While procedure text bring the instruction on how to make something happen completely. The following example of explanation text about how rain happen is best showing on what is explanation text, what is the purpose or social function of explanation text and how it differ from other text types. Explanation text often use technical terms related to the thing which is being explained. Explanation text is commonly compose in the mode of simple present tense. Here are the examples:

#1 How does Rain Happen?

Rain is the primary source of fresh water for most areas of the world, providing suitable conditions for diverse ecosystems, as well as water for hydroelectric power plants and crop irrigation.
The phenomenon of rain is actually a water circle. The concept of the water cycle involves the sun heating the Earth’s surface water and causing the surface water to evaporate. The water vapor rises into the Earth’s atmosphere. The water in the atmosphere cools and condenses into liquid droplets. The droplets grow until they are heavy and fall to the earth as precipitation which can be in the form of rain or snow.

#2 Tsunami

The term of “tsunami” comes from the Japanese which means harbor (“tsu”) and wave (“nami”). A tsunami is a series of waves generated when water in a lake or a sea is rapidly displaced on a massive scale.

A tsunami can be generated when the sea floor abruptly deforms and vertically displaces the overlying water. Such large vertical movements of the earth’s crust can occur at plate boundaries. Seductions of earthquakes are particularly effective in generating tsunami, and occur where denser oceanic plates slip under continental plates.

As the displaced water mass moves under the influence of gravity to regain its equilibrium, it radiates across the ocean like ripples on a pond.

Tsunami always brings great damage. Most of the damage is caused by the huge mass of water behind the initial wave front, as the height of the sea keeps rising fast and floods powerfully into the coastal area.



November 29, 2010 8 comments

Several days ago my friends got a problem about “Relative Pronoun”. They were unable to combine 2 sentences and choose “who”, “that”, or “whom”. So, today I am going to explain you about how to combine 2 sentences using “Relative Pronoun”.

Basically, the formula of “Relative Pronoun” is so simple:

  1. Who + verb …………………………………………………………… (it’s for people)
  2. Whom + I / you / we /they ………………………………………. (it’s also for people)
  3. That or Which + verb or pronoun ……………………………… (it’s for both people and things). “Which” is also often followed by: “is / was” or “are / were” or “has / had”
  4. Where + I / you / we / they ………………………………………. (to refer a place)
  5. Whose + possession


  1. The woman who works in that drugstore is my girlfriend.
  2. I know a bookstore where you can buy your favorite book.
  3. The woman whose daughter is a doctor died yesterday.
  4. My uncle, whom you met the other day, has recently written a book on Indian Art.
  5. The book that I borrow from you was lost!

The examples above show us the implementation of the formula: when we have “who”, it will be followed by “verb” like what I have typed in bold words (example #1). When we have “whom”, it will be followed by pronoun (I, you, we, they, he, she). And so on …….

Now, how if you find a question on your test about combining two sentences using “Relative Pronoun”? You must choose and decide what word (whether: who, whom, whose, where) that should be used. As an example, I will use these sentences: You see the doctor in the room. The doctor is my father.

To combine those sentences, we need to extract them first. The way to extract the sentences is by deleting one of the same pronouns (in this case is “the doctor”). So, when we extract the sentences above, it will become:

Another example is: She is a bank teller. She helped us to open an account. To combine these sentences, we need to extract the same pronouns and use only one of them. The same pronoun is “She”. So, it will look like this:

One more example: This is a bank. The bank accepted my identification. The same pronoun here is “Bank”. So, the rest are: “This is a bank” and “Accepted my identification”. To combine these two sentences, we can use “That”. So, the final sentence will be: “This is the bank that accepted my identification”. (We may change “This is a bank” into “This is the bank” for conformity of context).